Service and Restoration

Established in 1995, History of Recorded Sound (HRS) was founded by engineer and educator Len Horowitz. Horowitz purchased the record division of Western Electric (Westrex) to preserve the work and legacy of his mentor Otto Hepp who was the last surviving engineer at Westrex and the lead designer of all Westrex cutterheads in the 20th century. HRS is now one of the only facilities servicing analog recording equipment and have serviced equipment for many distinguished music studios such as Bernie Grundman Mastering, Valentine Recording Studios and Electro-Vox Studios. The Culver City business has been instrumental in restoring and preserving recording and audio technologies including turn-of-the-century wind-up record players, analog Ampex tape machines and Scully and Neumann vinyl cutting lathes. 

Direct-to-disc Recording

HRS provides a unique recording experience offering direct-to-disc recording on a 1940s Scully lathe. Artists and bands are able to record a live performance in our studio space straight to a high-fidelity lacquer disc that can be played on a record player. The record is mixed, mastered and cut in real-time and musicians are able to bring home their record immediately after recording.


As a guardian of sound history, HRS is a place for learning and enrichment housing students interested in many facets of the recording industry from music technology, sound production to the history of song writing -- Len Horowitz states, "The reason that we're here is to teach students and young people how to listen again and to enjoy an audio-only format". Please check the HRS Facebook page for updates on workshops and open house tours.

HRS Founder Len Horowitz with Westrex President Frank Pontius

HRS Founder Len Horowitz with Westrex President Frank Pontius